Human exposures to by-products from animals suspected to have died of anthrax in Bangladesh: An exploratory study
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis that is considered endemic in Bangladesh, where cases among animals and people have been reported almost annually since 2009. Contaminated by-products from animals are suspected to play a role in transmission to people, but minimal information is known on the supply chain of these potentially contaminated products. Between April 2013 and May 2016, we conducted a qualitative study in 17 villages located in five districts in Bangladesh, which had experienced suspected anthrax outbreaks. The study explored how by-products from suspected animal cases were collected, discarded, processed, distributed and used by people. We conducted open-ended interviews, group discussions and unstructured observations of people's exposure to animal by-products. The practice of slaughtering acutely ill domestic ruminants before they died was common. Respondents reported that moribund animals were typically butchered, and the waste products were discarded in nearby rivers, ditches, bamboo bushes, or on privately owned land. Regardless of health status before death, very few carcasses were buried, and none were incinerated or burned. The hides were reportedly used to make wallets, belts, shoes, balls and clothing. Discarded bones were often ground into granular and powder forms to produce bone meal and fertilizer. Therefore, given anthrax is endemic in the study region, livestock with acute onset of fatal disease or found dead with no known cause of death may be an anthrax case and subsequently pose a health risk to those involved in the collection and processing of the carcass, as well as the end-user of these products. Improved bio-security practices and safe carcass disposal measures could reduce the risk of human exposure, but resource and other constraints make implementation a challenge. Therefore, targeting at-risk animal populations for vaccination may be the most effective strategy to reduce anthrax outbreaks, protect the supply chain and reduce the risk of exposure to B. anthracis.